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On BL, mothers said with the youngster sex and pubertal condition, household earnings, and you will acculturation/enculturation

At each and every analysis range timepoint (BL, FU1, and you can FU2), a hot latvian girl couple of 24-h dieting remembers at a couple independent domestic visits was basically performed contained in this 30 days out of accelerometer testing by using the Nourishment Study Program having Research (NDSR) . Assessments had been conducted on a single week-end go out and one weekday within an identical day by trained interviewers exactly who presented just one 24-h weight loss keep in mind into child within his/their well-known language (Spanish/English). This new interviewers compiled weightloss studies using notebooks equipped with NDSR, a dietary data program designed for new range and you will analyses of 24-h dietary recalls, dining facts, menus and you can solutions . Interviewers conducted the fresh diet remembers according to the prompts provided by this new NDSR program . Total energy consumption out-of for every 24-h weight loss remember (week-end and you will weekday) are calculated having fun with NDSR. Times consumption is computed since the average complete energy intake to own the fresh new sunday day and weekday.

Bmi z-get (BMIz)

Kids’ height and you will lbs was counted after all about three timepoints playing with standard actions for the content, given that members was in fact dressed in white indoor outfits no boots [66, 67]. SECA mobile phone stadiometers and SECA mobile apartment digital bills that have secluded display were used having measuring top and you can pounds. Body mass index is actually transformed into BMIz playing with Federal Child Fitness Analytics development curves .


Pubertal reputation was reviewed utilizing the 5-items Pubertal Advancement Level . That it size, with designs to possess boys and you will girls, asks in the real advancement towards the properties on the actual maturation; z-ratings to own boys and you will girls had been determined. Acculturation (training that one abides by the fresh new dominant cultural norms) and you may enculturation (degree that that maintains an individual’s very own cultural norms) was in fact examined utilizing the 6-items English vocabulary play with and you can 6-items Language words play with subscales of the verified Bidimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics, correspondingly . An example item try “How often do you chat English with your members of the family?” Facts have been scored out-of never (=1) so you can constantly (=5) along with an excellent reliabilities in this take to (? = 0.88–0.94).


Descriptive analytics to have demographic suggestions, sleep years, MVPA and effort consumption because of the research months have been determined using IBM SPSS 24 Statistics to own Screen (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp).

Cross-lagged panel model

An a priori model (Fig. 2) delineating the concurrent relationships (zero-order correlations) between sleep duration (hours), MVPA, energy intake (kcals), and BMIz, and cross-lagged effect of sleep duration, MVPA, and energy intake at BL and FU1 on BMIz at FU1 and FU2, respectively, was examined using cross-lagged panel modeling. This approach is widely used in analysis of longitudinal data to test longitudinal predictive effects between variables, such as MVPA on BMIz while accounting for auto-regressive effects of past behavior on future respective behavior, such as MVPA at BL on subsequent MVPA at FU1. Potential covariates included child gender and pubertal status, household income and enculturation as covariates of sleep duration, MVPA, energy intake and BMIz. The variable representing the missing data pattern was included as a covariate of pubertal status (? = 0.12, p = 0.03) and BMIz at BL (? = 0.16, p 0.20. First, we fit the model with no constraints. Second, we fit a model with equality constraints, and finally fit a modified constrained model. We used cross-model-goodness-of-fit comparisons to guide selection of the final empirical model. The Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square test statistic assessed goodness-of-fit of the model (p > 0.05), and approximate model fit was examined using the recommendations of Hu and Bentler ; i.e., comparative fit index (CFI) ? 0.95; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) ? .06, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) ? .08. The final model was selected based on the lowest Akaike information criterion (AIC) . Standardized beta-coefficients (?) were examined for significance, magnitude and direction of relationship. Modeling was performed using Mplus, with full information maximum likelihood (FIML) to accommodate missing values. The number of observations in the analysis was 323. The FIML feature incorporates measures that support missing completely at random (MCAR). Mediation was tested using the INDIRECT command within Mplus, which estimates indirect effects with the delta method standard errors.